Proses Perubahan Diri Seorang Teroris menjadi Aktivis Perdamaian

  • Muhammad Syafiq
Keywords: self-change, deradicalization, disengagement, terrorism


This qualitative study was aimed at exploring  the  experience  of  a former  member of a terrorist organization in Indonesia who  have  left  his terrorist group and abandoned the extremist ideology. A life history method which focuses on the process of self-change and life transition of the former member of the terrorist group was employed A participant whose age is 40 years old and was a former active member of Jamaah Islamiyah (JI), a terrorist group, was recruited. He was captured in 2014 and served a sentence in prison for almost 4 years. He has been involved in counter-terrorism campaign organized by a non-government organization (NGO) since his release from prison until recently. Interviews were conducted to collect data which were then analyzed using a narrative analysis. Some written documents in the forms of articles and a published book produced by the participant as well as online news covering the participant’ stories were also examined. The findings inform how he became involved in the terrorist networks. The need for self-significance and adventurous experience seems to be the main drivers. After his capture, and during his imprisonment, he contemplated his participation in the terrorist networks. His meetings with religious experts and academicians facilitated by prison officers, and his awareness of burden he had inflicted on his family because of his terrorism case had opened his mind. He experienced a turning life moment which made him keeping distance from other terrorist inmates with the risk of receiving negative view from them. After his release, he found passion in writing and eventually reached a NGO and joined it as a credible voice in the campaigns of counter violent extremism through writing and public speaking.


Abuza, Z. (2009). The Rehabilitation of Jemaah Islamiyah Detainees in South East Asia: A Preliminary Assessment. In T. Bjorgo and J. Horgan (Eds.). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (pp. 193-211). Routledge.

Alfithon, A. M., & Syafiq, M. (2021). Self-compassion of terrorist prisoners undergoing deradicalization program. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat: Indonesian Journal of Indigenous Psychology. (online first).

Andrie, T. (2011). Kehidupan di Balik Jeruji: Terorisme dan Kehidupan Penjara di Indonesia. Position Paper No. 02. Institute for International Peace Building Jakarta.

Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional (BPHN). (2020, 17 Juli). Turun ke Lapas, BPHN tangkal penyebaran paham radikalisme dikalangan napi.

Barrelle, K. (2015). Pro-integration: disengagement from and life after terrorism. Behavioural Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression,7(2), 129-142.

Bjorgo, T. (2009). Processes of disengagement from violent groups of the extreme right. In T. Bjorgo and J. Horgan (Eds.). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (pp.30-48). Routledge.

Clubb, G. (2014). "From Terrorists to Peacekeepers": The IRA's disengagement and the role of community networks. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 37(10), 842-861.

Chalmers, I. (2017). Countering Violent Extremism in Indonesia: Bringing Back the Jihadists. Asian Studies Review, 41(3), 331-351.

Cherney, A. (2018). Evaluating interventions to disengage extremist offenders: A study of the proactive integrated support model (PRISM). Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 12(1),17-36.

Côté, J. E. (2018): The Enduring Usefulness of Erikson’s Concept of theIdentity Crisis in the 21st Century: An Analysis of Student Mental Health Concerns. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 18(4), 251-263.

El-Amraoui, A. F., & Ducol, B. (2019). Family-Oriented P/CVE Programs: Overview, Challenges and Future Directions. Journal for Deradicalization, 20, 191-230.

Garfinkel, R. (2007). Personal transformations: Moving from violence to peace. United States Institute of Peace.

Gómez, Á., Martínez M., Martel, F. A., López-Rodríguez, L., Vázquez, A., Chinchilla, J., Paredes, B., Hettiarachchi, M., Hamid, N., & Swann, W. B. (2021). Why People Enter and Embrace Violent Groups. Frontiers in Psychology,11, 3823.

Hafez, M. M. (2016). The Ties that Bind: How Terrorists Exploit Family Bonds. CTC Sentinel, 9(2), 15-17.

Hagemaster J. N. (1992). Life history: A qualitative method of research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(9), 1122–1128.

Hettiarachchi, M. (2018). Rehabilitation to deradicalise detainees and inmates: A counter-terrorism strategy. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 13(2), 267-283.

Horgan, J., & Altier, M. B. (2012). The future of terrorist de-radicalization program. GeorgetownJournal of International Affairs, 13(2),83-90.

Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists?: Challenges in assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs. Terrorism and Political Violence,22(2),267-291.

Hwang, J. C. (2018). Why terrorist quit: The disengagement of Indonesian jihadist. Cornell University Press.

Hwang, J. C. (2017). The Disengagement of Indonesian Jihadists: Understanding the Pathways. Terrorism and Political Violence. 29(2), 277-295.

Harris, K. J., Gringart, E. & Drake, D. (2017). Leaving ideological groups behind: A model of disengagement. Behavioural Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 10(2), 91-109.

Ismail, N. H. (2006). The Role of Kinship in Indonesia’s Jemaah Islamiya. Terrorism Monitor, Volume: 4 Issue: 11.

Koehler, D. (2017). How and why we should take deradicalization seriously. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 0095. (2018, Mei 30). BNPT: Ada 289 Narapidana Terorisme yang Tersebar di 113 Lapas.

Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Belanger, J. J., Sheveland A., Hetiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2014). The Psychology of Radicalization and Deradicalization: How Significance Quest Impacts Violent Extremism. Political Psychology, 35(1), 69-93.

Moskalenko, S. & McCauley, C. (2009). Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(2): 239 - 260.

Mullins, S. (2010). Rehabilitation of Islamist terrorists: Lessons from Criminology. Dynamics of Asymmetrics Conflict, 3(3), 162-193. doi:

Noricks, D. M. E. (2009). Disengagement and Deradicalization: Processes and Programs,” in Davis, Paul K. and Cragin, Kim. (eds.). Social Science for Counterterrorism: Putting the Pieces Together. RAND Corporation.

Putra, I. E., Danamasi, D. O., Rufaedah, A., Arimbi, R. S., & Priyanto, S. (2018). Tackling Islamic terrorism and radicalism in Indonesia by increasing the sense of humanity and friendship. In B. L. Cook (Ed.). Handbook of research on examining global peacemaking in the digital age (pp. 94-114). IGI Global.

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S. L., Ghez, J. J., & Boucek, C. (2010). Deradicalizing Islamist Extremists. RAND Corporation.

Riessman, C. K. (1993). Narrative analysis. Sage Publications

Schmid, A. P. (2013). Radicalisation, de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation: A conceptual discussion and literature review. The International Center for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague, 4(2), 1-105.

Sikkens, E., Van San, M., Sieckelinck, S., & De Winter, M. (2017). Parental Influence on Radicalization and De-Radicalization according to the Lived Experiences of Former Extremists and their Families. Journal for Deradicalization, 12, 192-225.

Sukabdi, Z. A. (2015). Terrorism in Indonesia: A review on rehabilitation and deradicalization. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2),36-56.

Sulastri, O. (2010). Jemaah Islamiyah: Of Kin and Kind. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 29(2), 157-175.

Sumpter, C. (2017). Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society. Journal for Deradicalization, 11, 112-146.

Syafiq, M. (2019). Deradicalization and disengagement from terrorism and threat to identity: An analysis of former jihadist prisoners' accounts. Psychology and Developing Societies, 31(2), 227-251.

Venhaus, J. M. (2010). Why Youth Join al-Qaeda. Special Report, 236. United States Institute of Peace.

Webber, D. & Kruglanski, A. W. (2018).The social psychological makings of a terrorist. Current Opinion in Psychology, 19, 131-134.
How to Cite
Syafiq, M. (2021). Proses Perubahan Diri Seorang Teroris menjadi Aktivis Perdamaian. Jurnal Ilmiah Psyche, 15(2), 73 - 92.
Abstract viewed = 49 times
Jurnal Ilmiah Psyche : 36 times