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Discussions about efforts to understand literary works are still being developed today. To understand a work as a whole, there are many aspects that can be observed. One of them is understanding the tools and language used in literary works. Formalism is a school that was born in Russia as a form of opposition to the theoretical approach of previous literary works. According to the school of Formalism, there are two elements that can be studied in literary works related to internal mechanics and the language used in literary works. Internal mechanics examines literary works by looking at the structure and style of language used as a tool in constructing a literary work. Meanwhile, the analysis of the language of literary works is related to the defamiliarization technique used by the author in creating a story. This research uses a qualitative approach with descriptive techniques. In order to collect data, researchers used literature study with content analysis method. Sources of research data were taken from excerpts of sentences contained in the novel Ayah by Andrea Hirata. To perform data analysis, researchers used data triangulation which consisted of data collection, data presentation and drawing conclusions. The results of this study indicate that the novel Ayah by Andrea Hirata contains elements of internal mechanics and good literary language in accordance with the theory of Formalism..
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